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For all database versions errors are written to the work process trace files (dev_w*) in the SAP work directory. Consult these files for additional information and read the applicable SAP OSS Note for the relevant database type mentioned in appendix B of this document. Also transaction SM21 might provide some further details.
In the case of SSL certificate errors for the Hana Database, specifically when you use self-signed certificates you might add the SSL option "sslvalidatecertificate=false" in the Encryption parameters when creating the DB connection. This is not recommended but might apply for testing purposes.